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Temporalis muscle location and function

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The temporalis is a muscle located in the skull that extends from the temporal fossa to the coronoid process of the jawbone, or mandible.

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The muscle is shaped similar to a parallelogram, connecting to the mandible lower jawbone and the cheekbone. One of the primary functions of the trigeminal nerve is to allow sensation, or feeling, in the facial area of the body. Identify the 2 bones that make up the zygomatic arch.

It originates from the temporal fossa and temporal fascia connective tissue that lies under the skinand passes the zygomatic arch cheekbone before inserting into the mandible's coronoid process, a bony part of the lower jaw that sticks out near its back end. The deep temporal nerves in this third branch control all of the mastication chewing muscles. This is the region on the sides of the head and behind the eyes. Identify the skull bone that can move independent of head movement.

Just below the temple lies both the temporal and sphenoid bones. Identify the region of the sphenoid bone in contact with the pituitary gland. It is a broad, fan-shaped muscle on each side of the head that fills the temporal fossa, superior to the zygomatic arch so it covers much of the temporal bone. Identify the region of the mandible that forms part of the temporomandibular joint. Before you read about temporalis muscle pain from trigger points, you may want to find out more about the temporalis muscle.

Identify the part of the ethmoid bone that contributes to the nasal septum. The temporal muscle is broad, fan-shaped, and situated along the side of the head, occupying a depression in the skull called the temporal fossa.

Along with the medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid and masseter muscles, it belongs to the group masticatory muscles. Coronoid process. Identify the primary function of the ethmoidal sinuses.

The temporalis muscle runs superficially, from the temporal bone to the coronoid process of mandible. Which of the following bone pairings is NOT connected by a suture? Which of the following is NOT part of the axial division of the skeletal system? The temporal muscle, or temporalis muscle, is one of several chewing muscles that is necessary for crushing and grinding objects between the molars.

Posterior surface and base of the cranium. Which facial bones fuse to form the upper jaw? Which of the following facial bones contain a sinus? Communications Workers of America. Toggle navigation. Identify the general location of the zygomatic arch.It can be congenital or acquired, bilateral or unilateral. Muscle transfers are indicated in cases of long-term, or permanent, facial paralysis greater than 18 months. Regional or free muscle transfer can restore unidirectional movement of the lips and lower face by using branches of the contralateral facial nerve or unaffected ipsilateral cranial nerves eg, trigeminal nerve branches for mastication [V3].

The methods outlined herein include further refinements to the techniques originally developed by Gillies. The lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a procedure for reorganizing and transferring the function of the ipsilateral temporalis muscle in an orthodromic fashion to the lips and oral commissure for the purpose of reanimating the lower face.

It is a broad muscle that originates in the temporal fossa and inserts onto the coronoid process of the mandible. The temporalis consists primarily of two layers, deep and superficial, that converge onto a single tendon FIG 1A. The tendon is broad and wraps around the coronoid process in a conical fashion, extending down onto the ramus for several millimeters. The muscle is dually innervated at the infratemporal crest by the deep temporal nerves from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve V3.

It also has dual circulation from the deep temporal arteries branching from the maxillary artery FIG 1B. Muscle fibers from the masseter and the pterygoids attach to portions of the temporalis tendon as it passes through the zygomatic, or infratemporal, fossa. The most common form is acquired complete unilateral facial nerve palsy of an inflammatory etiology ie, Bell palsy.

Although most cases will resolve spontaneously, a small number of patients will continue to experience persistent facial paralysis or weakness causing noticeable asymmetry of function and appearance. History Etiology trauma, viral, tumor, syndromic, etc.

It is important to determine whether the cause is congenital or acquired. Associated symptoms vertigo, tinnitus, vision changes, ataxia, apraxia, symptoms related to other cranial nerve palsies, stroke, etc.

Treatments administered to date radiation, slings, canthoplasty, muscle flaps, etc. Unilateral vs bilateral and complete vs partial facial paralysis Time course Early: less than 12 months Intermediate: 12 to 18 months Late: greater than 18 months Physical examination is used to determine the location and extent of facial paralysis and resulting deformities.

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In addition, physical examination should document function of other cranial nerves and assess potential causes of facial paralysis if possible.

For assessment of facial paralysis and its sequela, the face is divided into thirds. Upper third: Paralysis of the upper face results in brow ptosis, lack of forehead rhytides, and compensatory contralateral forehead elevation. Middle third: Middle third paralysis results in incomplete eyelid closure with lower lid malposition lagophthalmos and ectropion.

The physical examination should document Bell phenomenon a defensive movement of the eye that is present in most patients resulting in upward movement of the eye with eye closure and reliance on eye lubricants. In addition, symptoms of epiphora and dry eyes should be elicited.

Lower third: Lower third paralysis results in mouth droop, drooling, loss of or asymmetric smile, pucker, articulation, and lower lip depression Smile assessment Loss of nasolabial fold: Patients with partial facial paralysis will have partial loss or asymmetric nasolabial folds.

Contralateral deflection of the lips, accentuated with smiling negative vector of excursion Incomplete bilabial closure Record vector direction and length of oral commissure excursion of paralyzed and nonparalyzed sides may be a negative number.

Examination and documentation of remaining cranial nerve function particularly function of the fifth cranial nerve. This can be done simply by assessing temporalis and masseter muscle function when biting down. Diagnostic studies Brain MRI is sometimes indicated to rule out tumor etiology or secondary compression. Although nerve conduction studies may be helpful in treatment planning for facial paralysis patients in the intermediate term, they are of limited use in patients experiencing permanent or long-standing facial nerve palsy.

The temporalis muscle consists primarily of superficial and deep layers. Dual neurovascular supply of the temporalis muscle. Deep temporal nerves derive from the mandibular division of the cranial nerve V3and deep temporal arteries branch from the maxillary artery.The temporalis muscle flap has limited utility in the routine reconstruction of head and neck defects.

The use of this flap has been commonly associated with the reconstruction of maxillectomy defects. The use of the temporalis for these defects has significantly diminished over the past two decades as the role of microvascular flaps have become the mainstay for reconstruction of maxillectomy defects.

The temporalis flap remains as one of the reconstructive options for patients with facial paralysis. In these cases, the muscle may be employed to restore dynamic function to the paralyzed face. The advantage of the temporalis muscle flap is the ease of access to the muscle, the moderate quantity of muscle that can be harvested, and the ability to transfer the muscle to the oral cavity.

Because of the limited length of the muscle, and the arc of rotation needed to reach the maxilla, the flap can be brought into the oral cavity by two routes.

The first route travels over the zygomatic arch and the other travels under the arch. If the path to the oral cavity is chosen to travel over the arch it will result in a diminished reach of the muscle due to the longer path needed to travel to reach the defect. The alternative route, i. The main disadvantage of the temporalis muscle flap is the resultant hollowing associated with the use of the muscle. In cases where the majority of the muscle is used to reconstruct the defect, the temporal defect can be addressed at the time of surgery with the placement of a temporal implant.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle that originates along the temporal lines of the parietal bone of the skull. The muscle lies within the temporal fossa, is covered by a strong fibrous aponuerotic sheath, the temporalis fascia, and passes medial to the zygomatic arch.

Insertions of the muscle are onto the anterior and medial surfaces of the coronoid process and along the anterior ascending ramus of the mandible. The muscle thickness varies from 5 mm along its periphery to 15 mm at the level of the zygomatic arch.

The temporalis muscle is classified as a Type III 2 muscle receiving its main vascular supply from the anterior and deep temporal arteries, branches from the second portion of the internal maxillary artery.

9. Muscles of the Head

Both deep temporal arteries have a mean vessel diameter of 1 mm. The minor pedicle to the temporalis muscle is via the middle temporal artery, a branch from the superficial temporal artery that has a mean vessel diameter of 0.

The innervation to the temporalis muscle, like the other muscles of mastication, arise from the anterior division of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve via the anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves. Introduction The temporalis muscle flap has limited utility in the routine reconstruction of head and neck defects.

Anatomy The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle that originates along the temporal lines of the parietal bone of the skull.

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Flap harvest The patient is positioned with the head rotated to expose the donor side towards the surgeon. A decision to shave a strip of the hair along the path of the incision or to shave the entire head will often depend on the gender of the patient. In males, the head is more commonly shaven while in females only a strip of the hair along the path of the planned incision is shaven.

Temporalis Muscle – Attachments, Actions & Innervation

The incision for the harvest of the temporalis muscle is designed from the pre-auricular area and extends superiorly towards the vertex of the head Figure Incision is made along the marked incision line and carried deep to the dermis in the pre-auricular area and deep to the temporoparietal fascia along the scalp.

The scalp flap is then elevated superficial to the temporalis muscle fascia. This fascia is easily identified by its very white appearance. Once the anterior and posterior scalp flaps are elevated, the muscle is exposed up to the temporal crest and as far anteriorly as possible towards the muscle attachment in the anterior temporal crest Figure An anterior incision is then made in the muscle and carried down to the bone Figure The temporal bones are paired bones that help make up the sides and base of the skull cranium.

As such, blunt trauma or fracture of these bones can lead to serious complications and brain injurydamage to the inner ear, as well as facial nerve problems. In addition, middle ear infections can spread to this bone. In anatomy, each temporal bone is composed of five parts: the squama, the petrous, mastoid, and tympanic parts, as well as the styloid process.

Notably, the temporal bone attaches to the joint of the jaw bone—the temporomandibular joint —and is fused with other bones of the skull, including the occipital bone on the lower rear side, the parietal bone above that, the sphenoid bone on its front side, and the zygomatic cheek bone. Variations in the anatomy of the temporal bone are not uncommon and usually have to do with the size and shape of its many openings.

The most commonly observed variations are:. The temporal bone provides structural support for the skull, while protecting the cerebrum of the brain and surrounding membranes. In addition, this bone surrounds the middle and inner portions of the ear. Its lower portion connects with the mandible or jawbone to allow the mouth to open and close. Notably, a majority of the cranial nerves —nerves associated with sensation and perception—pass over this bone. Given their position on the sides and back of the skull, these bones connect to a number of important muscle groups.

In particular, the temporalis and masseter—muscles involved with chewing motion—are connected to the squama and styloid process. Furthermore, the more rear-facing parts are linked to the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles, associated with neck and head motion. Finally, via its mastoid process, the bone is connected to the suprahyoid muscle, essential for swallowing.

A number of medical issues can arise in this part of the skull. While the temporal bone is relatively thick, blunt trauma can cause a fracture of this bone. This can lead to a number of serious complications, including damage to hearing, vertigo, facial paralysis due to damage to the facial nerveand bleeding in the ear as well as bone bruising.

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Notably, fractures can also lead to leaking of cerebral spinal fluid. More common are fractures of the pterion, which is where the temporal bone joins with other major bones of the skull: the parietal, frontal, and sphenoid.

This juncture is the weakest point of the skull. The middle meningeal arterywhich supplies the dura and skull, passes right behind it. If injured or lacerated, blood collects and dangerously increases intracranial pressure.

This can lead to seizures, nausea, vomiting, and limb weakness, among other symptoms. Because the mastoid portion of the temporal bone is porous, middle ear infections spread to it, leading to a condition called mastoiditis. If untreated, the infection can spread further into the middle cranial fossa, a major region of the interior of the skull, and even the brain, itself, causing meningitis.

Depending on the severity of trauma and fracture of the skull, surgery may be necessary to correct the issue and take on bleeding and other issues that may arise.

temporalis muscle location and function

This, along with more conservative approaches, is effective in taking on facial paralysis; however, the decision to move ahead needs to be carefully weighed.

Leaking of cerebrospinal fluid following a fracture of the temporal bone increase the risk of meningitis, a type of brain infection.Muscles of Facial Expression—Nose, Muscles of Facial Expression—Mouth, The muscles addressed in this chapter are the muscles of the head. These muscles can be divided into muscles of mastication chewingmuscles of the scalp, and muscles of facial expression.

Mastication is the act of chewing. Therefore the muscles of mastication are those that attach to and are involved in movement of the mandible at the temporomandibular joints TMJs. The four major muscles of mastication are the temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, and medial pterygoid. Note: The eight muscles of the hyoid group are also involved in mastication; they are discussed in Chapter 7.

Muscles of the scalp and facial expression are superficial fascial muscles. The muscles of the scalp are involved in moving the scalp and the ear. Muscles of facial expression can be further subdivided into muscles of the eye, nose, and mouth. The contraction of these muscles is important for displaying emotions.

Although some universality of facial expressions that display emotions are certainly apparent, variations are evident from one culture to another. Further, many of these muscles may act in concert with others to add to the spectrum of facial expressions. Some sources state that more than separate facial expressions can be created with combinations of the muscles of facial expression.

The companion CD at the back of this book allows you to examine the muscles of this body region, layer by layer, and individual muscle palpation technique videos are available in the Chapter 9 folder on the Evolve website. The following general rules regarding actions can be stated for the functional groups of muscles of mastication at the TMJs:. If a muscle attaches to the mandible and its other attachment is superior to the mandibular attachment, it can elevate the mandible at the TMJs.

If a muscle attaches to the mandible and its other attachment is inferior to the mandibular attachment, it can depress the mandible at the TMJs. If a muscle attaches to the mandible and its other attachment is anterior to the mandibular attachment, it can protract the mandible at the TMJs.

If a muscle attaches to the mandible and its other attachment is posterior to the mandibular attachment, it can retract the mandible at the TMJs. If a muscle attaches to the mandible and its other attachment is medial to the mandibular attachment, it can contralaterally deviate do opposite side deviation of the mandible at the TMJs. Reverse actions of the major muscles of mastication are unlikely because they would require movement of the entire head toward a fixed mandible at the TMJs.

The temporalis and masseter are two of the four major muscles of mastication chewing. The other two are the lateral and medial pterygoids discussed in the next layout. The temporalis and masseter are superficial muscles; the temporalis overlies the temporal bone and the masseter overlies the mandible Figure The masseter is usually divided into two layers: a superficial layer and a deep layer. The name, temporalistells us that this muscle attaches onto the temporal bone.

The name, massetertells us that this muscle is involved with chewing. Temporal fossa. Coronoid process and the ramus of the mandible. Inferior margins of both the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic arch of the temporal bone. Angle, ramus, and coronoid process of the mandible. Both the temporalis and masseter move the mandible at the temporomandibular joints TMJs.This section is about the Muscles of Face and Neck.

The temporalis is a facial muscle, one of a pair of which one is located on either side of the head, slightly above and forward of each ear.

temporalis muscle location and function

An example of a function of the temporalis muscle is to chew food. The temporalis muscle is one of the three muscles of masticationthe other two being the masseter and the medial pterygoid which is also known as the 'internal pterygoid muscle'. The temporalis is one of the muscles of the head, neck, and face taught as part of many courses in Indian Head Massage. As this is a popular therapy we have included several pages that may be of interest to students of Indian Head Massage.

See, for example, the page about skeletal structures of the head and neck. See the page about Facial Muscles to view the location of the temporalis muscle. This page consists of an interactiverather than just a labelled, diagram, so you'll have to test yourself by guessing which muscle is the temporalis until you find the correct label.

Kale is in season in February - 7 Feb ' Aromatherapy assoc. It's a bumper blueberry season - 13 Jul ' Positive effects of exercise on blood cell populations - 20 Jun ' Angels send reminders in many forms, sometimes as a note or Angel gift from a friend, sometimes as a feather at your feet. Although care has been taken when compiling this page, the information contained might not be completely up to date. Accuracy cannot be guaranteed. This material is copyright.

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Temporalis Flap and Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty for Facial Paralysis

IvyRose Holistic Toggle navigation More. Glossary Index.

Temporomandibular joint \u0026 muscles of mastication

More pages in this category in alphabetical order : Buccinator. More pages in this category in alphabetical order :. The points of origin and insertion, and the actions of the temporalis muscle: Origin: Temporal fossa, including surfaces on the frontalparietal and temporal bones Insertion: Coronoid process and ramus of the mandible lower jaw bone Actions: Elevates the mandible Retracts the mandible The temporalis muscle is one of the three muscles of masticationthe other two being the masseter and the medial pterygoid which is also known as the 'internal pterygoid muscle'.

More about Muscles : The structure of muscle tissue and the structure of muscle cells Labelled diagrams of the muscles in different parts of the body including anterior musclesposterior muscles and facial muscles Various other pages about e. Structure of Muscle 2. Structure of Muscle Cells 3. Muscle Filaments 4.

temporalis muscle location and function

Sliding Filament Theory 5. Neuromuscular Junction 6.Brad is an inventor of several patents in the areas of data and privacy. He currently lives in Palo Alto with his wife, twin daughters, and their dog. Henry Blodget is cofounder, CEO, and editor-in-chief of Business Insider, one of the most-read business and tech news sites in the world. Business Insider is majority owned by Axel Springer, the leading digital publisher in Europe. The site has 80-plus million visitors a month worldwide.

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temporalis muscle location and function

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